One of the most crucial roles of nurses is giving medication. It should be given accurately to ensure the patient’s safety. There are so many routes on how to administer the medications to patient. It can be given orally, rectally, topical, eye or nasal drops, and parenteral. And one of those parenteral routes is through intramuscular injection. Before giving the medication to a patient, nurses should review the six “RIGHTS” in administering the medication which are: the right medication, right patient, right dose, right route, right time, and right approach. After the procedure the 7th right should be commenced which is the “Right Documentation”.
How to do Intramuscular InjectionNurses should always ensure that the standard precautions are followed before performing any nursing procedure. These are the identification of the patient correctly to ensure that the medication is received by the correct patient; thorough hand washing to prevent contamination of infection; gather the complete and necessary equipment before starting the procedure to save energy and time; explain the procedure to patient to obtain her/his cooperation; and provide privacy to make the patient more comfortable, relaxed, and more cooperative.
Aside from medication label and name, it is nevertheless important to check its expiration date and its consistency whether there is unnecessary cloudiness or sediments. It is essential to follow the correct steps and precautions in the preparation and administration of injectable medications. The video above and this article will certainly show you the step by step procedure on how to give intramuscular injection.
After opening the vial make sure that the top of it will be cleansed by an alcohol swab. Before aspirating the medication from the vial, certain amount of air should be filled in the syringe as the same amount of medication to be taken from the vial. Then inject that certain amount of air from the syringe into the vial then aspirate the medication as ordered by the doctor. This will allow easy aspiration of medication from any closed container. When a medication will be drawn or aspirated from an ampule, it is not necessary to inject air into it since it is not a closed container. The air outside the ampule will facilitate easy aspiration. Nurses’ safety is also secured that’s why a scoop method in recapping a needle is formulated. Proper disposal of needles into appropriate sharp box should be adhered to prevent needle prick injury. It is advisable to use gauze while breaking the ampule. For patient’s safety, aspirating needle should be replaced with injecting needle especially when medication was withdrawn from the vial but it is not necessary when it was withdrawn from the ampule unless it is contaminated.
Patient InjectionRemove the air or bubbles from the syringe by tapping it and pushing the plunger. When the medication is ready place it in the kidney dish together with the alcohol swabs to cleanse the patient skin and a band aid to be applied in the patient injection site right after the administration of medication.
As mentioned earlier, make sure that you identify the patient correctly before giving the medication. Intramuscular injection can be given through the deltoid muscles (upper arm) and to the gluteal muscles (buttocks) for the adults and to the vastus lateralis (lateral side of the thigh) for the infant and young children. Cleanse the injection site with alcohol swab in circular manner from inner to outer about 1-2 inches in diameter. Then pinch the muscle and inject the needle in a quick dart manner at 90 degrees angle. Then aspirate or withdraw the plunger to check for the presence of blood in the syringe from the injection site, if there is any withdraw the needle from the muscle. Blood in the syringe upon aspiration indicates that you hit a vein thus injection should not be given. If the syringe is free from blood upon aspiration, slowly inject the medication and quickly remove the needle from the injection site or muscle. Gently massage the injection site to promote faster absorption of medication and apply slight pressure to prevent bleeding. Then apply band aid to injection site to cover the pricked skin thus infection will be prevented. Lastly do the after care of the equipment used, wash your hands and document the procedure noting the exact date, time, name, route, and amount of medication given.